Porcine Gamma Globulin Salt Fractionation

BSA Cell Culture Grade Grade 35% BSA Liquid
BSA Cell Culture Grade Grade 35% BSA Liquid

Swine Gamma Globulin Fraction Properties

Porcine
pig (Sus domesticus)
Description
SWINE Gamma Globulin Fraction – D613-0100
Species of Origin
Swine
Physical State
Lyophilized
Shipping Condition
Ambient
PSC Type
Protein
PSC Format
Native Protein
Label
Unconjugated
Concentration
12.5 mg/mL by UV absorbance at 280 nm
Buffer
0.02 M Potassium Phosphate, 0.15 M Sodium Chloride, pH 7.2
Reconstitution Volume
10.0 mL
Reconstitution Buffer
Restore with deionized water (or equivalent)
Preservative
0.01% (w/v) Sodium Azide
Stabilizer
None
Glucagon (1 - 37), porcine;Oxyntomodulin, porcine
5-01220 CHI Scientific 4 x 1mg Ask for price
Mucin-Porcine
30-1976 Fitzgerald 10 g 208 EUR
Porcine IgG
31-1008 Fitzgerald 1 g 268 EUR
Secretin, porcine
HY-P1535 MedChemExpress 1mg 187 EUR
Porcine HSV
EPH0317 Abclonal 96Tests 521 EUR
Porcine HSV
EPH0318 Abclonal 96Tests 521 EUR
Porcine Serum
abx098264-1L Abbexa 1 L 592 EUR
Pancreastatin, porcine
5-01704 CHI Scientific 0.4 x 5mg Ask for price
PHI, porcine
5-01757 CHI Scientific 4 x 1mg Ask for price
Secretin, porcine
5-01915 CHI Scientific 4 x 1mg Ask for price
Calcitonin, porcine
5-00902 CHI Scientific 4 x 1mg Ask for price
Galanin, porcine
5-01176 CHI Scientific 4 x 1mg Ask for price
GIP, porcine
5-01208 CHI Scientific 4 x 1mg Ask for price
GRF, porcine
5-01253 CHI Scientific 4 x 1mg Ask for price
Motilin, porcine
5-01563 CHI Scientific 4 x 1mg Ask for price
Porcine Thrombin
7-06661 CHI Scientific 500U Ask for price
Porcine Thrombin
7-06662 CHI Scientific 1000U Ask for price
Porcine Thrombin
7-06663 CHI Scientific 2000U Ask for price
Porcine Insulin
7-01123 CHI Scientific 25mg Ask for price
Porcine Insulin
7-01124 CHI Scientific 250mg Ask for price
Porcine Insulin
7-01125 CHI Scientific 1gram Ask for price
Porcine Insulin
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Porcine Insulin
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Porcine Insulin
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GRP (porcine)
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GRP (porcine)
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Galanin (porcine)
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GRP (porcine)
H-1635.0500 Bachem 0.5mg 273 EUR
GRP (porcine)
H-1635.1000 Bachem 1.0mg 454 EUR
Calcitonin (porcine)
H-3068.0001 Bachem 1.0mg 236 EUR
Calcitonin (porcine)
H-3068.0005 Bachem 5.0mg 853 EUR
Secretin (porcine)
H-3780.0001 Bachem 1.0mg 176 EUR
Secretin (porcine)
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Adrenomedullin (porcine)
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Adrenomedullin (porcine)
H-7682.1000 Bachem 1.0mg 236 EUR
Galanin (porcine)
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Galanin (porcine)
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Motilin, porcine
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Recombinant Porcine UMOD Protein, Untagged, Porcine-10ug
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Recombinant Porcine UMOD Protein, Untagged, Porcine-2ug
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Porcine Serum Albumin
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Amylase protein (Porcine)
30-1044 Fitzgerald 25 KU 298 EUR
Bilirubin protein (Porcine)
30-1058 Fitzgerald 25 mg 144 EUR
CKBB protein (Porcine)
30-1080 Fitzgerald 1 kU 465 EUR
Haptoglobin protein (Porcine)
30-1128 Fitzgerald 100 ug 440 EUR
Kallikrein protein (Porcine)
30-1143 Fitzgerald 1000 units 638 EUR
LDH protein (Porcine)
30-1152 Fitzgerald 10 kU 501 EUR
LDH protein (Porcine)
30-1153 Fitzgerald 10 kU 248 EUR
LDL protein (Porcine)
30-1166 Fitzgerald 100 mg 384 EUR

E Immunohistochemistry

Another analytical use for antibodies is to localize particular bioregulators, synthesizing enzymes, or degrading enzymes in tissues, cells, or parts of cells. This approach, called immunohistochemistry (or immunocytochemistry), employs an antibody made in one species, say a mouse, against the specific molecule (antigen) you wish to localize in the brain of a song sparrow or other animal. There are several variations of this technique based on a simple procedure (Fig. 2.7). First, you make the mouse antibody that would be a mouse gamma-globulin protein and apply that to sections of song sparrow tissue placed on a microscope slide.

HiQ Block for IHC
B3077-010 GenDepot 100ml 134 EUR
HiQ Block for IHC
B3077-050 GenDepot 500ml 263 EUR
Universal IHC Diluent/Blocker/Stabilizer
85R-1021 Fitzgerald 1 liter 692 EUR
EMA antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1002 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
hCG antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1005 Fitzgerald 7 ml 244 EUR
BRDU antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1006 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
EpCAM antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1014 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
p53 antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1015 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
PCNA antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1016 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
S100 antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1017 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
TSH antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1019 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
Thyroglobulin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1020 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
NSE antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1023 Fitzgerald 7 ml 232 EUR
Ferritin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1026 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Vimmentin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1027 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Fibronectin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1028 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
CRP antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1029 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
CEA antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1030 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
HBcAg antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1031 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Calcitonin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1032 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Synaptophysin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1033 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Thyroglobulin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1034 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
PSA antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1035 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Ubiquitin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1036 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Insulin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1037 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
MUC2 antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1038 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
S100 antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1039 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
MBP antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1040 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
GFAP antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1041 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
AFP antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1042 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Lysozyme antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1043 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Transferrin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1047 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Desmin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1048 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
MPO antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1050 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
Insulin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1058 Fitzgerald 7 ml 187 EUR
BCIP-NBT Dye for IHC
G447 ABM 250 ml 254 EUR
UltraBrite? Red IHC chromogen (AP)
M1305-30 Biovision 349 EUR
UltraBrite? Blue IHC chromogen (AP)
M1307-30 Biovision 370 EUR
UltraBrite? Blue IHC chromogen (HRP)
M1308-30 Biovision 457 EUR
UltraBrite? Green IHC chromogen (AP)
M1309-30 Biovision 425 EUR
UltraBrite? Yellow IHC chromogen (HRP)
M1310-30 Biovision 457 EUR
UltraBrite? Black IHC chromogen (HRP)
M1311-30 Biovision 457 EUR
UltraBrite? Red IHC chromogen (HRP)
M1312-30 Biovision 370 EUR
IHC Enzyme Antigen Retrieval Reagent
AR0022 BosterBio 50mL (for 500-750 assays) 106 EUR
BCIP/NBT Solution for IHC
B3007-005 GenDepot 50ml 134 EUR
BCIP/NBT Solution for IHC
B3007-010 GenDepot 100ml 188 EUR
BCIP/NBT Solution for IHC
B3007-050 GenDepot 500ml 475 EUR
Enhanced Universal IHC Diluent/Blocker/Stabilizer
85R-1021E Fitzgerald 100 ml 187 EUR
alpha Actin antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1001 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR
Cytokeratin 19 antibody (Prediluted for IHC)
75R-1003 Fitzgerald 7 ml 225 EUR

Theoretically, the antibody will bind only in cells that contain the antigen. In another mammalian species, you make an antibody against mouse gamma-globulin and conjugate that with an enzyme known as a peroxidase. This is also applied to the tissue sections. This second antibody will bind to the gamma-globulin, which has bound previously to the song sparrow antigen. Next, you add a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme that results in a colored product that will be localized in the cell containing the antigen-gamma-globulin antigamma-globulin-peroxidase complex. This complex can then be viewed with the microscope.

Abstract

Immunoglobulin is a highly diverse autologous molecule able to influence immunity in different physiological and diseased situations. Its effect may be visible both in terms of development and function of B and T lymphocytes. Polyclonal immunoglobulin may be used as therapy in many diseases in different circumstances such as primary and secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, polyneuropathies, cancer, after allogeneic transplantation in the presence of infections and/or GVHD. However, recent studies have broadened the possible uses of polyclonal immunoglobulin showing that it can stimulate certain sub-populations of T cells with effects on T cell proliferation, survival and function in situations of lymphopenia. These results present a novel and considerable impact of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment in situations of severe lymphopenia, a situation that can occur in cancer patients after chemo and radiotherapy treatments. In this review paper the established and experimental role of polyclonal immunoglobulin will be presented and discussed as well as the manufacturing processes involved in their production.

Human CD3+ T Cells (Pan T Cells), Cryopreserved
M1299-10 Biovision 566 EUR
Human CD3+ T Cells (Pan T Cells), Cryopreserved
M1299-20 Biovision 805 EUR
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Human CD3+ T Cells (Pan T Cells), Cryopreserved
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anti-CD45 RA B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells
516-A-01mg Virogen 0,1 mg 267.5 EUR
anti-CD45 RA B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells
516-A-1000ug Virogen 1000 ug 1282.5 EUR
anti-CD4 T helper cells
502-A-01mg Virogen 0,1 mg 267.5 EUR
anti-CD4 T helper cells
502-A-1000ug Virogen 1000 ug 1282.5 EUR
anti-CD5 All T-cells
503-A-01mg Virogen 0,1 mg 267.5 EUR
anti-CD5 All T-cells
503-A-1000ug Virogen 1000 ug 1282.5 EUR
anti-CD7 All T-cells
504-A-01mg Virogen 0,1 mg 267.5 EUR
anti-CD7 All T-cells
504-A-1000ug Virogen 1000 ug 1282.5 EUR
T-Pro Stacking Buffer
JB03-C002 T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 152 EUR
T-Pro MycoClean spray
JT90-R002 T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 144 EUR
anti-CD8 T cytotoxic/supressor cells
505-A-01mg Virogen 0,1 mg 267.5 EUR
anti-CD8 T cytotoxic/supressor cells
505-A-1000ug Virogen 1000 ug 1282.5 EUR
T-Pro EZ Gel Solution 8%
JB02-B008M T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 222 EUR
T-Pro EZ Gel Solution 8%
JB02-B008S T-Pro Biotechnology 100ml/BT 135 EUR
T-Pro EZ Gel Solution 10%
JB02-B010M T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 222 EUR
T-Pro EZ Gel Solution 10%
JB02-B010S T-Pro Biotechnology 100ml/BT 135 EUR
T-Pro EZ Gel Solution 12%
JB02-B012M T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 222 EUR
T-Pro EZ Gel Solution 12%
JB02-B012S T-Pro Biotechnology 100ml/BT 135 EUR
T-Pro EZ Gel Solution 15%
JB02-B015M T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 222 EUR
T-Pro EZ Gel Solution 15%
JB02-B015S T-Pro Biotechnology 100ml/BT 135 EUR
T-Pro Separating or Resolving Buffer
JB03-C001 T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 152 EUR
T-Pro BCA Protein Assay kit
JB04-D001 T-Pro Biotechnology 500assay/KIT 204 EUR
T-Pro Transfer Blotting buffer (10X)
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T-Pro Western Blot Stripping Reagent
JB11-K002 T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 178 EUR
T-Pro Aqua EZ Clean (M)
JT90-R001M T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 332 EUR
T-Pro Aqua EZ Clean (S)
JT90-R001S T-Pro Biotechnology 100ml/BT 151 EUR
T-Pro EZ stain Gel solution
JT90-R005M T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 187 EUR
T-Pro EZ stain Gel solution
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T-Pro P-Fect Transfection Reagent
JT97-N005M T-Pro Biotechnology 1.0ml/vial 222 EUR
T-Pro Plasmid Mini Kit (100)
RB94-YPD100 T-Pro Biotechnology 100preps/Kit 161 EUR
T-Pro Plasmid Mini Kit (250)
RB94-YPD250 T-Pro Biotechnology 250preps/Kit 222 EUR
T-Pro Plasmid Midi Kit (20)
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T-Pro Plasmid Maxi Kit (10)
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Testosterone (T) ELISA Kit
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Testosterone (T) ELISA Kit
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T-Pro BCA Protein Assay Reagent A
JB04-D001A T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 170 EUR
T-Pro BCA Protein Assay Reagent B
JB04-D001B T-Pro Biotechnology 12ml/BT 117 EUR
T-Pro Bradford Protein Assay kit(1X)
JB04-D002 T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 161 EUR
T-Pro Fast Blocking Buffer (in PBS)
JK92-W001 T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 187 EUR
T-Pro Fast Blocking Buffer (in TBS)
JK92-W002 T-Pro Biotechnology 500ml/BT 187 EUR
T-Pro Genomic DNA Midi Kit (20)
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T-Pro Genomic DNA Mini Kit (100)
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General Testosterone (T) ELISA Kit
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General Testosterone (T) ELISA Kit
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General Testosterone (T) ELISA Kit
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Introduction

In 1890 von Behring firstly communicated their work in serum application against diphtheria [1] and tetanus [2]. Since then, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been object of intense investigation in terms of function, clinical application, molecular structure and its modification, and purification.

Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been used to treat people with inherited immunoglobulin deficiencies since 1952 when Bruton infused it in a child with undetectable “gamma globulin” levels and who suffered from recurrent pneumococcal infections [3]. Subcutaneous infusions of gamma globulin at monthly intervals induced serum measurable gamma globulin levels and completely eliminated pneumococcal infections. Human IgG soon became the standard treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiencies who develop chronic bacterial infections [3]. Later, in 1981, the use of IVIg for the treatment of autoimmune diseases was first described [4]. Nowadays, IVIg is the major product on the global blood product market and its consumption is multiplying every year in North America, Europe and Asia for licensed and unlicensed/off-label uses.

The active substances in IVIg preparations are polyclonal natural antibodies synthesized, in response to immune stimuli (antigens and T cells), by plasma B cells.

Immunoglobulins are a group of closely related glycoproteins composed of 82%–96% protein and 4%–18% carbohydrate. These glycoproteins of about 150 kDa are present in plasma at a mean concentration of 7 to 12 g/L depending upon individual variations and level of environmental exposure to antigens. The immunoglobulin G (IgG), a major effector molecule of the humoral immune response in man accounts for about 75% of the total Igs in the plasma of healthy individuals. The Igs of the other classes (IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE) each of which has specific properties and functions, constitute the other 25% of the Igs [5].

BSA Cell Culture Grade Grade 35% BSA Liquid
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The basic Ig molecule has a four-chain structure, comprising two identical heavy (H) chains and two identical light (L) chains, linked together by inter-chain disulfide bonds. Intra-chain disulfide bonds are responsible for the formation of loops, leading to the compact domain-like structure of the molecule. The amino terminal portions of the H and L chains, characterized by a highly variable (V) amino acid composition, are referred to a VH and VL, respectively. The constant part (C) of the L chain is designated as CL, while that of the H chain are further divided into three distinct subunits: CH1, CH2 and CH3. IgG possesses dual functions characterized by the capacity to recognize and react specifically with the antigen and to perform a series of non-specific effector functions in which the antigen is rendered harmless and eventually eliminated. This functional dichotomy of IgG is reflected in the structure of the molecule that comprises two variable regions responsible for antigen binding (Fab), and a constant region (the Fc or crystallisable fragment) that mediates the specific effector functions.

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Dinitrophenyl (DNP)-BSA protein Conjugate
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mPEG-BSA (Molecular Weight: 5,000-linear)
PEG-BSA-05K Alpha Diagnostics 100 ug 286 EUR
mPEG-BSA (Molecular Weight: 10,000-linear)
PEG-BSA-10K Alpha Diagnostics 100 ug 286 EUR
mPEG-BSA (Molecular Weight: 20,000-linear)
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mPEG-BSA (Molecular Weight: 40,000-linear)
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(DRAAGQPAG)3 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, CSP) conjugated with BSA
DRAA31-BSA Alpha Diagnostics 0.5 mg 529 EUR
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(NVDP)4 peptide (minor repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) conjugated with BSA
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(NANP)5 peptide (25-aa, repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) conjugated with BSA
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Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit
DLR-BSA-Ge-96T DL Develop 96T 494 EUR
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) removal kit (Antibody based aff matrix; sufficient to remove 1-2 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 2 ml aff column
800-302-BSA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 347 EUR
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) removal kit (Antibody based aff matrix; sufficient to remove 10-20 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 10 ml aff column
800-310-BSA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 895 EUR
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) removal kit (Antibody based aff matrix; sufficient to remove 25-50 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 25 ml aff column
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General Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit
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General Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit
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General Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit
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General Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit
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Vaccigel Alum adjuvant adsorbed with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA @1 mg/ml), Vaccine adjuvant
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Pre-diluted BSA (bovine serum albumin) standards (1 set) for BCA Optima Protein Assay kit
BCA-BSA-1 Alpha Diagnostics 1 pk 164 EUR
Pre-diluted BSA (bovine serum albumin) standards (750 ug/ml) for BCA Optima Protein Assay kit
BCA-BSA-750 Alpha Diagnostics 1 ml 225 EUR
BSA and BGG Stock standards (1 vial each @ 2 mg/ml) for BCA Optima Protein Assay kit
BSA-BGG-1 Alpha Diagnostics 1 pk 286 EUR
Pre-diluted BSA (bovine serum albumin) standards (250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, and 0.0 ug/ml) for BCA Optima Protein Assay kit
BCA-BSA-2 Alpha Diagnostics 1 pk 164 EUR
Albumin (Human, Mouse, rat, bovine and others) removal kit (synthetic dye based matrix; sufficient to remove 20-40 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 2 ml aff column
800-200-BSA Alpha Diagnostics 1 kit 286 EUR
Albumin (Human, Mouse, rat, bovine and others) removal kit (synthetic dye based matrix; sufficient to remove 50-100 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 5 ml aff column
800-205-BSA Alpha Diagnostics 1 kit 773 EUR
Albumin (Human, Mouse, rat, bovine and others) removal kit (synthetic dye based matrix; sufficient to remove 250-500 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 25 ml aff column
800-225-BSA Alpha Diagnostics 1 kit 2425 EUR
BSA
31C-CH0114 Fitzgerald 50 mg 133 EUR
Ibrutinib drug-Human Serum Albumin Conjugate
IBT16-BSA Alpha Diagnostics 100 ug 529 EUR
BSA Control for AGE-BSA
35R-AA007 Fitzgerald 10 mg 224 EUR
Testosterone 3 BSA Protein (BSA)
abx060856-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 578 EUR
Histamine [G-BSA] (G-G-BSA)
DAG3327 Creative Diagnostics 1mg 1234 EUR
Cyclic citrullinated peptide-BSA(CCP-BSA)
E64I00802 EnoGene 100ug 343 EUR
BSA antibody
70R-AS001 Fitzgerald 500 ug 197 EUR
Amphetamine-BSA
80-1038 Fitzgerald 1 mg 138 EUR
Barbiturate-BSA
80-1039 Fitzgerald 1 mg 136 EUR
Buprenorphine-BSA
80-1040 Fitzgerald 1 mg 136 EUR
Benzodiazepine-BSA
80-1041 Fitzgerald 1 mg 138 EUR
Methamphetamine-BSA
80-1043 Fitzgerald 1 mg 138 EUR
MDMA-BSA
80-1044 Fitzgerald 1 mg 138 EUR
Morphine-BSA
80-1045 Fitzgerald 1 mg 169 EUR
Methadone-BSA
80-1046 Fitzgerald 1 mg 161 EUR
Oxycodone-BSA
80-1047 Fitzgerald 1 mg 161 EUR
Aflatoxin-BSA
80-1049 Fitzgerald 1 mg 358 EUR
THC-BSA
80-1051 Fitzgerald 1 mg 142 EUR
Cortisol-BSA
80-1060 Fitzgerald 500 ug 300 EUR
Corticosterone-BSA
80-1062 Fitzgerald 500 ug 300 EUR

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The Fab fragments are composed of a light chain and part of a heavy chain, whereas the Fc fragment has various regions (CH), which exhibit several functions such as binding of complement component 1 (C1) and interactions with the Fc receptor on macrophages or neutrophils and other immune cells. The activation of the effector function is initiated by an aggregation of the IgG molecule on the surface of the antigen. Such activation exposes molecular structures that can activate the complement system or induce opsonization by phagocytes [6]. Immunoglobulins, B and T cells are the key mediators of adaptive immunity. Deficiencies in either of these two arms of immunity can lead to a heightened susceptibility to bacterial, fungal or viral infections. Primary immunodeficiency (PID) disorders, such as agammaglobulinaemias, hyperimmunoglobulin M (IgM) syndromes and common variable immunodeficiencies (CVID), are either caused by defined gene mutations or remain molecularly undefined [7,8]. In addition, hypogammaglobulinaemic phenotypes, termed secondary immunodeficiencies, can arise for example from viral infections, B cell malignancies, bone marrow transplantation or after immunosuppressive therapy [7]. For most of the primary and secondary Ig deficiencies, intravenous Ig replacement therapy (IVIg) is the treatment of choice.

The polypeptide chains of Igs are encoded by three non-linked cluster of autosomal genes, one cluster coding for H chains of all classes and subclasses, a second one for kappa (k) light chains and a third one for lambda (λ) light chains. These three genes clusters are called the H-, k-and λ gene families respectively. In humans the H gene family is on chromosome 14, the k gene family is on chromosome 2 and the λ gene family is on chromosome 22. Molecular genetic studies have revealed the arrangement of gene segments within the H chain and L chain families. Each H chain is encoded by 4 distinct types of gene segments, designated VH (variable), DH (diversity), JH (joining) and CH. The V region of the H chain is encoded by the VH, DH and JH segments. The L chains are encoded by the 3 gene segments, VL, JL and CL segments.

KAPPA
KAPPAF2-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 388 EUR
KAPPA
KAPPAPE2-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 596 EUR
immunoglobulin Kappa (immunoglobulin kappa) Antibody
abx234295-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 509 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx411144-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 551 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx411421-1ml Abbexa 1 ml 439 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx411422-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 662 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx412052-1ml Abbexa 1 ml 439 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx413125-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 829 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx415783-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 439 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx415786-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 398 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx415797-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 495 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody
abx415799-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 398 EUR
kappa-Carrageenan
GC6839-100G Glentham Life Sciences 100 g 62 EUR
kappa-Carrageenan
GC6839-1KG Glentham Life Sciences 1 kg 225 EUR
kappa-Carrageenan
GC6839-250G Glentham Life Sciences 250 g 94 EUR
kappa-Carrageenan
GC6839-25G Glentham Life Sciences 25 g 43 EUR
kappa-Carrageenan
GC6839-500G Glentham Life Sciences 500 g 142 EUR
Kappa (NFKB1)
MO47031 Neuromics 100 ul 349 EUR
KAPPA/LAMBDA
1KF3LPE2-50T ImmunoStep 50 test 672.05 EUR
KAPPA/CD19
KAPPAF219PE1-50T ImmunoStep 50 test 350.3 EUR
KAPPA/LAMBDA
KAPPAF2LAMBDAPE-50T ImmunoStep 50 test 414 EUR
KAPPA/CD19
KF319PE4-50T ImmunoStep 50 test 466 EUR
LAMBDA/KAPPA
LF2KPE3-50T ImmunoStep 50 test 615.5 EUR
Kappa Antibody
P1045-01m SAB 0.1m 136 EUR
Kappa Antibody
P1045-1ml SAB 1ml 281 EUR
Human Immunoglobulin G1 Kappa (IgG1 Kappa) Protein
abx670165-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 467 EUR
Human Immunoglobulin G2 Kappa (IgG2 Kappa) Protein
abx670166-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 523 EUR
Human Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Protein
abx670245-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 551 EUR
Human Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Protein
abx670246-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 648 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin G1 Kappa (IgG1 Kappa) Protein
abx670291-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 634 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin G2a Kappa (IgG2a Kappa) Protein
abx670292-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 634 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin G2b Kappa (IgG2b Kappa) Protein
abx670293-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 634 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin M Kappa (IgM Kappa) Protein
abx670294-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 634 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin E Kappa (IgE Kappa) Protein
abx670299-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 606 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (FITC)
abx411143-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 439 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (TRITC)
abx411145-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 620 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (AP)
abx411146-1ml Abbexa 1 ml 565 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (HRP)
abx411147-1ml Abbexa 1 ml 495 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (Biotin)
abx411149-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 606 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (RPE)
abx411150-025mg Abbexa 0.25 mg 634 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (AP)
abx411216-1ml Abbexa 1 ml 565 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (Biotin)
abx411218-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 495 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (RPE)
abx411219-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 759 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (HRP)
abx412923-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 718 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (HRP)
abx413129-01mg Abbexa 0.1 mg 495 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (HRP)
abx414986-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 718 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (FITC)
abx415784-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 467 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (HRP)
abx415785-1ml Abbexa 1 ml 495 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (Biotin)
abx415787-05mg Abbexa 0.5 mg 467 EUR
Kappa Light Chain (Kappa-IgLC) Antibody (HRP)
abx415788-1ml Abbexa 1 ml 495 EUR

The C gene segments of the H and L chains encode for the constant regions. Nine immunoglobulin H chain isotypes are found in humans: IgM, IgE, IgG (with subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) and IgA (with subclasses IgA1 and IgA2).

immunoglobulin Kappa (immunoglobulin kappa) Antibody
abx234295-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 509 EUR
Yolk Immunoglobulin Antibody
abx110397-500ug Abbexa 500 ug 300 EUR
Immunoglobulin J Protein
20-abx261047 Abbexa
  • 3418.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 230.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 20 ug
  • 5 ug
Immunoglobulin (IG) Antibody
abx024071-200ug Abbexa 200 ug 843 EUR
Recombinant Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)
4-RPA234Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 368.80 EUR
  • 202.00 EUR
  • 1108.00 EUR
  • 436.00 EUR
  • 772.00 EUR
  • 310.00 EUR
  • 2620.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Recombinant Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
4-RPA545Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 386.72 EUR
  • 206.00 EUR
  • 1175.20 EUR
  • 458.40 EUR
  • 816.80 EUR
  • 322.00 EUR
  • 2788.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Recombinant Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
4-RPA545Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 404.64 EUR
  • 211.00 EUR
  • 1242.40 EUR
  • 480.80 EUR
  • 861.60 EUR
  • 334.00 EUR
  • 2956.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Recombinant Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
4-RPA545Po01 Cloud-Clone
  • 458.40 EUR
  • 226.00 EUR
  • 1444.00 EUR
  • 548.00 EUR
  • 996.00 EUR
  • 370.00 EUR
  • 3460.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Recombinant Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
4-RPA546Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 440.48 EUR
  • 221.00 EUR
  • 1376.80 EUR
  • 525.60 EUR
  • 951.20 EUR
  • 358.00 EUR
  • 3292.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Recombinant Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
4-RPA546Po01 Cloud-Clone
  • 413.60 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1276.00 EUR
  • 492.00 EUR
  • 884.00 EUR
  • 340.00 EUR
  • 3040.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Recombinant Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
4-RPA546Ra01 Cloud-Clone
  • 449.44 EUR
  • 223.00 EUR
  • 1410.40 EUR
  • 536.80 EUR
  • 973.60 EUR
  • 364.00 EUR
  • 3376.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Recombinant Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
4-RPB941Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 413.60 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1276.00 EUR
  • 492.00 EUR
  • 884.00 EUR
  • 340.00 EUR
  • 3040.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Recombinant Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
4-RPB941Ra01 Cloud-Clone
  • 413.60 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1276.00 EUR
  • 492.00 EUR
  • 884.00 EUR
  • 340.00 EUR
  • 3040.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Anti-immunoglobulin kappa antibody
PAab04295 Lifescience Market 100 ug 386 EUR
Eukaryotic Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)
4-EPA074Rb61 Cloud-Clone
  • 530.08 EUR
  • 245.00 EUR
  • 1712.80 EUR
  • 637.60 EUR
  • 1175.20 EUR
  • 418.00 EUR
  • 4132.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Eukaryotic Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-EPA544Rb61 Cloud-Clone
  • 395.68 EUR
  • 209.00 EUR
  • 1208.80 EUR
  • 469.60 EUR
  • 839.20 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 2872.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA074Bo01 Cloud-Clone
  • 368.80 EUR
  • 202.00 EUR
  • 1108.00 EUR
  • 436.00 EUR
  • 772.00 EUR
  • 310.00 EUR
  • 2620.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)
4-NPA074Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 297.12 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 839.20 EUR
  • 346.40 EUR
  • 592.80 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 1948.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)
4-NPA074Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 413.60 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1276.00 EUR
  • 492.00 EUR
  • 884.00 EUR
  • 340.00 EUR
  • 3040.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG)
4-NPA234Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 297.12 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 839.20 EUR
  • 346.40 EUR
  • 592.80 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 1948.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
4-NPA543Po01 Cloud-Clone
  • 277.41 EUR
  • 177.00 EUR
  • 765.28 EUR
  • 321.76 EUR
  • 543.52 EUR
  • 248.00 EUR
  • 1763.20 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
4-NPA543Ra01 Cloud-Clone
  • 413.60 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1276.00 EUR
  • 492.00 EUR
  • 884.00 EUR
  • 340.00 EUR
  • 3040.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Bo01 Cloud-Clone
  • 207.52 EUR
  • 158.00 EUR
  • 503.20 EUR
  • 234.40 EUR
  • 368.80 EUR
  • 202.00 EUR
  • 1108.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Ca01 Cloud-Clone
  • 261.28 EUR
  • 173.00 EUR
  • 704.80 EUR
  • 301.60 EUR
  • 503.20 EUR
  • 238.00 EUR
  • 1612.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Cp01 Cloud-Clone
  • 243.36 EUR
  • 168.00 EUR
  • 637.60 EUR
  • 279.20 EUR
  • 458.40 EUR
  • 226.00 EUR
  • 1444.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Eq01 Cloud-Clone
  • 243.36 EUR
  • 168.00 EUR
  • 637.60 EUR
  • 279.20 EUR
  • 458.40 EUR
  • 226.00 EUR
  • 1444.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Ga01 Cloud-Clone
  • 248.74 EUR
  • 169.00 EUR
  • 657.76 EUR
  • 285.92 EUR
  • 471.84 EUR
  • 229.00 EUR
  • 1494.40 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Gu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 234.40 EUR
  • 166.00 EUR
  • 604.00 EUR
  • 268.00 EUR
  • 436.00 EUR
  • 220.00 EUR
  • 1360.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 171.68 EUR
  • 149.00 EUR
  • 368.80 EUR
  • 189.60 EUR
  • 279.20 EUR
  • 178.00 EUR
  • 772.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 153.76 EUR
  • 144.00 EUR
  • 301.60 EUR
  • 167.20 EUR
  • 234.40 EUR
  • 166.00 EUR
  • 604.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Ov01 Cloud-Clone
  • 243.36 EUR
  • 168.00 EUR
  • 637.60 EUR
  • 279.20 EUR
  • 458.40 EUR
  • 226.00 EUR
  • 1444.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Po01 Cloud-Clone
  • 243.36 EUR
  • 168.00 EUR
  • 637.60 EUR
  • 279.20 EUR
  • 458.40 EUR
  • 226.00 EUR
  • 1444.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Ra01 Cloud-Clone
  • 225.44 EUR
  • 163.00 EUR
  • 570.40 EUR
  • 256.80 EUR
  • 413.60 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1276.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
4-NPA544Rb01 Cloud-Clone
  • 189.60 EUR
  • 154.00 EUR
  • 436.00 EUR
  • 212.00 EUR
  • 324.00 EUR
  • 190.00 EUR
  • 940.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
4-NPA545Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 368.80 EUR
  • 202.00 EUR
  • 1108.00 EUR
  • 436.00 EUR
  • 772.00 EUR
  • 310.00 EUR
  • 2620.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3)
4-NPA829Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 297.12 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 839.20 EUR
  • 346.40 EUR
  • 592.80 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 1948.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2)
4-NPB682Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 297.12 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 839.20 EUR
  • 346.40 EUR
  • 592.80 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 1948.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Native Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1)
4-NPE778Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 288.16 EUR
  • 180.00 EUR
  • 805.60 EUR
  • 335.20 EUR
  • 570.40 EUR
  • 256.00 EUR
  • 1864.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Yolk Immunoglobulin Antibody (Biotin)
abx106118-500ug Abbexa 500 ug 300 EUR
Yolk Immunoglobulin Antibody (FITC)
abx107532-500ug Abbexa 500 ug 300 EUR
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Antibody
20-abx128506 Abbexa
  • 398.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1094.00 EUR
  • 537.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Antibody
20-abx130163 Abbexa
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1233.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Antibody
20-abx130476 Abbexa
  • 467.00 EUR
  • 126.00 EUR
  • 1372.00 EUR
  • 648.00 EUR
  • 356.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Antibody
20-abx130516 Abbexa
  • 453.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1316.00 EUR
  • 620.00 EUR
  • 342.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) Antibody
20-abx131193 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1205.00 EUR
  • 578.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) Antibody
20-abx131194 Abbexa
  • 425.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1177.00 EUR
  • 578.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
Yolk Immunoglobulin Antibody Pair
abx117404-1pair5x96wellplates Abbexa 1 pair (5x96 well plates) 1010 EUR
Yolk Immunoglobulin Antibody (HRP)
abx108951-500ug Abbexa 500 ug 300 EUR
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor Antibody
20-abx110526 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
IgG Immunoglobulin(IG217) Antibody
BNC040217-100 Biotium 100uL 199 EUR

The CH gene segments determine the class and/or subclass of the H chain, whereas VH, DH and JH regions determine the antigen-recognizing part of the Ig molecule. The H and L chains constant genes lie 3′ to the VH, DH, JH, and VL, JL genes, respectively. During maturation of progenitor B cells to mature B cells an active H chain exon is formed by VH, DH and JH, and that of L chain formed by VL and JL somatic gene rearrangements (recombined VHDHJH and VLJL) which codes for antigen binding variable region of IgG, followed by linkage to a certain CH gene locus. This is transcribed to mRNA and subsequently translated to an immunoglobulin H chain molecule. The CH gene closest to the JH locus is the Cμ gene (IgM), which is the first isotype gene to be expressed. The other CH genes can subsequently be expressed by downstream switching mechanisms with simultaneous deletion of the original isotypic CH genes. The DNA rearrangements that underlie isotype switching and confer their functional diversity on the humoral immune response are directed by cytokines, especially those released by effector CD4 T cells [9].

Human Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
DLR-CD4-Hu-48T DL Develop 48T 498 EUR
Human Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
DLR-CD4-Hu-96T DL Develop 96T 647 EUR
Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
DLR-CD4-Mu-48T DL Develop 48T 508 EUR
Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
DLR-CD4-Mu-96T DL Develop 96T 661 EUR
Rat Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
DLR-CD4-Ra-48T DL Develop 48T 528 EUR
Rat Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
DLR-CD4-Ra-96T DL Develop 96T 690 EUR
Human Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RD-CD4-Hu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 500 EUR
Human Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RD-CD4-Hu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 692 EUR
Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RD-CD4-Mu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 511 EUR
Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RD-CD4-Mu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 709 EUR
Rat Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RD-CD4-Ra-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 534 EUR
Rat Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RD-CD4-Ra-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 742 EUR
Human Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RDR-CD4-Hu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 522 EUR
Human Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RDR-CD4-Hu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 724 EUR
Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RDR-CD4-Mu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 534 EUR
Mouse Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RDR-CD4-Mu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 742 EUR
Rat Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RDR-CD4-Ra-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 558 EUR
Rat Cluster Of Differentiation 4 (CD4) ELISA Kit
RDR-CD4-Ra-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 776 EUR
CD4
4A-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 349 EUR
CD4
4AC750-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 583 EUR
CD4
4B-01MG ImmunoStep 100 test 284 EUR
CD4
4CFB-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 388 EUR
CD4
4F-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 297 EUR
CD4
4PE-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 349 EUR
CD4
4PP-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 349 EUR
CD4
4PPC5.5-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 388 EUR
CD4
4PPC5.52-100T ImmunoStep 100 test 765 EUR
CD4
4PU-01MG ImmunoStep 0,1 mg 219 EUR
CD4/ Rat CD4 ELISA Kit
ELA-E1014r Lifescience Market 96 Tests 886 EUR
Cd4/ Rat Cd4 ELISA Kit
ELI-03250r Lifescience Market 96 Tests 886 EUR
CD4 antibody
70R-49498 Fitzgerald 100 ul 244 EUR
CD4 antibody
70R-9673 Fitzgerald 50 ug 467 EUR
CD4 antibody
70R-33480 Fitzgerald 100 ug 327 EUR
CD4 Antibody
AF5341 Affbiotech 200ul 304 EUR
CD4 Antibody
BF0174 Affbiotech 200ul 376 EUR
CD4 Antibody
ABF5341 Lifescience Market 100 ug 438 EUR
CD4 Antibody
ABD6451 Lifescience Market 100 ug 438 EUR
anti-CD4
YF-PA10754 Abfrontier 100 ug 403 EUR
CD4 protein
30R-ACD4 Fitzgerald 100 ug 840 EUR
CD4 protein
30-013101 Fitzgerald 100 ug 136 EUR
CD4 antibody
70R-16275 Fitzgerald 50 ul 435 EUR
CD4 Antibody
6937-50 Biovision 256 EUR
CD4 antibody
10R-1880 Fitzgerald 100 ul 241 EUR
CD4 antibody
10R-3614 Fitzgerald 100 ul 691 EUR
CD4 antibody
10R-3615 Fitzgerald 100 ul 691 EUR
CD4 antibody
10R-3616 Fitzgerald 100 ul 691 EUR
CD4 antibody
10R-3617 Fitzgerald 100 ul 691 EUR
CD4 antibody
10R-3618 Fitzgerald 100 ul 691 EUR
CD4 antibody
10R-3619 Fitzgerald 100 ul 691 EUR
CD4 antibody
10R-3620 Fitzgerald 100 ul 691 EUR

2. IVIg’s Composition and Industrial Production Methods

Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs) are a therapeutic preparation of pooled normal polyspecific human IgGs obtained from large numbers of healthy donors. The preparation contains antibodies to microbial antigens, self antigens (natural autoantibodies) and anti-idiotypic antibodies which recognize other antibodies [10]. These categories are not mutually exclusive [11].

Plasma used in the production of IVIg comes from two origins: approximately 20 percent is from blood donors, and the other 80 percent is from plasma donors [12]. Individual plasmas are pooled; the pool size is a minimum of 1000 donors, but may be up to 100,000 donors [5,13,14,15]. The maximum number of donors in pools is treated as proprietary information by each manufacturer. The many thousands of donors who contribute to a typical pool of plasma used for isolation of immunoglobulin represent a wide range of antibody specificities against infectious agents [13,15] such as bacterial, viral and also a large number of self antigens reflecting the cumulative exposure of the donor population to the environment.

Techniques developed by Cohn and his coworkers [16,17] in the USA at the beginning of World War II led to the development of the separation of plasma proteins into individual stable fractions with different biologic functions. The basis for Cohn’s fractionation was to use low concentrations of alcohol, reducing the pH and lowering ionic strength. The procedure was performed at low temperature, which reduced the likelihood of contamination and made large-scale fractionation possible. This method, further refined in cooperation with J. L. Oncley [17], is basically still in use and, with some additional steps, yields Ig for intravenous and subcutaneous use [6].

The products are licensed as 50 mg/mL (5%) or 100 mg/mL (10%) IgG solutions for infusion, but may vary slightly from lot to lot and significantly from manufacturer to manufacturer [18].

Preparations of IVIg consist of intact IgG molecules with a distribution of IgG subclasses corresponding to that of normal serum. Subclass distribution may vary between preparations, with some products having less than physiological levels of IgG3 and/or IgG4. IVIg also contains small, but variable, amounts of other proteins and products, notably, and depending on the commercial preparation, albumin, IgA (content varying from less than 5 μg/mL to more than 700 μg/mL), IgE, IgM, sugars, salts, trace amounts of solvents, detergents and buffers may contribute to tolerability difficulties [19]. The monomer and/or dimer content may vary between preparations and up to 3% non-active polymers may be found. Several of these proteins and products may affect the tolerability of IVIg infusions, notably salt, sugar and/or IgA content; volume, pH, osmolality and rate of infusion. The half-life of IVIg after intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection is approximately 2–3 weeks. This can, however, vary depending on the immune status of the patient.

Bovine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-b-48T DL Develop 48T 547 EUR
Bovine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-b-96T DL Develop 96T 715 EUR
Chicken Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-Ch-48T DL Develop 48T 508 EUR
Chicken Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-Ch-96T DL Develop 96T 661 EUR
Human Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-Hu-48T DL Develop 48T 441 EUR
Human Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-Hu-96T DL Develop 96T 570 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-Mu-48T DL Develop 48T 489 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-Mu-96T DL Develop 96T 635 EUR
Porcine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-p-48T DL Develop 48T 547 EUR
Porcine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-p-96T DL Develop 96T 715 EUR
Rat Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-Ra-48T DL Develop 48T 508 EUR
Rat Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
DLR-IgA-Ra-96T DL Develop 96T 661 EUR
Bovine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RD-IgA-b-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 555 EUR
Bovine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RD-IgA-b-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 771 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RD-IgA-Mu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 489 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RD-IgA-Mu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 677 EUR
Porcine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RD-IgA-p-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 555 EUR
Porcine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RD-IgA-p-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 771 EUR
Rat Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RD-IgA-Ra-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 511 EUR
Rat Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RD-IgA-Ra-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 709 EUR
Bovine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-b-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 580 EUR
Bovine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-b-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 807 EUR
Chicken Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-Ch-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 534 EUR
Chicken Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-Ch-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 742 EUR
Human Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-Hu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 455 EUR
Human Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-Hu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 629 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-Mu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 511 EUR
Mouse Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-Mu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 709 EUR
Porcine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-p-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 580 EUR
Porcine Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-p-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 807 EUR
Rat Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-Ra-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 534 EUR
Rat Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ELISA Kit
RDR-IgA-Ra-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 742 EUR
Rat Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (anti-HBsAg) IgA ELISA kit, 96 tests, quantitative
4270-30-IGA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 895 EUR
Human Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (anti-HBsAg) IgA ELISA kit, 96 tests, quantitative
4200-30-IGA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 895 EUR
Mouse Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (anti-HBsAg) IgA ELISA kit, 96 tests, quantitative
4210-30-IGA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 895 EUR
Monkey Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (anti-HBsAg) IgA ELISA kit, 96 tests, quantitative
4250-30-IGA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 1017 EUR
RecombiVirus Rat Epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM)/rotavirus IgA ELISA Kit, 2x96 tests
AE-300415-IgA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 1260 EUR
Recombivirus? Human Anti-Zika Virus (ZIKV) NS1 protein IgA ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative
RV-403300-IgA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 1138 EUR
Mouse Anti-Meningococcal A/C/W/Y Oligosaccharides IgA (Combo) ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative
600-888-IGA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 1017 EUR
Human Anti-Meningococcal Group A/C/W/Y Oligosaccharides IgA (Combo) ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative
600-883-IGA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 1017 EUR
IgA
A00061 ScyTek Laboratories 6 ml 108 EUR
IgA
A00061.0025 ScyTek Laboratories 25 ml 252 EUR
IgA
A20061 ScyTek Laboratories 2 ml 79 EUR
Mouse Anti-S. Pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax/CPS23) IgA ELISA Kit; (23 serotypes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6b, 7F, 8,9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19F, 19A, 20, 22F, 23F and 33F), 96 tests, quantitative
560-186-IGA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 1078 EUR
Human Anti-S. Pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax/CPS23) IgA ELISA Kit; (23 serotypes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6b, 7F, 8,9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19F, 19A, 20, 22F, 23F and 33F), 96 tests, quantitative
560-196-IGA Alpha Diagnostics 1 Kit 1078 EUR
IgA/ Rat IgA ELISA Kit
ELA-E0546r Lifescience Market 96 Tests 886 EUR
IgA Antibody
ABD8563 Lifescience Market 100 ug 438 EUR
IgA Antibody
DF8563 Affbiotech 200ul 304 EUR
Mouse IgA
C040312-10mg Unibiotest 10mg 1790 EUR
Mouse IgA
C040312-1mg Unibiotest 1mg 607 EUR

After blood collection (and posterior separation of cellular components) or plasma collection, the plasma is typically stored at ≤ −20°C for several months. All donations are screened for virus infections (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human immunodeficiency virus) [20,21]. A specified acceptable maximum titre of ABO blood groups antibodies is present, reducing the risks of haemolytic reactions due to the presence of ABO antibodies or antibodies to other blood group system in IVIg [22]. The quality of each individual plasma donation through using good collection practices is crucial to optimize pathogen safety and to ensure the preservation of protein functional activities. Collecting plasma for fractionation are inspected by National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) and audited by fractionators. In Europe, details on plasma collection procedures, testing, handling and transportation are assembled into a “Plasma Master File” (PMF) [5,21,23].

Abo/ Rat Abo ELISA Kit
ELI-48915r Lifescience Market 96 Tests 886 EUR
Abo antibody
70R-8817 Fitzgerald 50 ug 467 EUR
ABO Antibody
ABD6481 Lifescience Market 100 ug 438 EUR
ABO antibody
70R-13559 Fitzgerald 100 ul 457 EUR
ABO Antibody
DF6481 Affbiotech 200ul 304 EUR
ABO Antibody
1-CSB-PA048521 Cusabio
  • 317.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
ABO Antibody
1-CSB-PA210249 Cusabio
  • 317.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
ABO Antibody
CSB-PA001110KA01HU- Cusabio 335 EUR
ABO Antibody
CSB-PA001110KA01HU-100ul Cusabio 100ul 389 EUR
ABO Antibody
1-CSB-PA001110LA01HU Cusabio
  • 317.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
ABO Antibody
32328-100ul SAB 100ul 252 EUR
ABO siRNA
20-abx900092 Abbexa
  • 551.00 EUR
  • 732.00 EUR
  • 15 nmol
  • 30 nmol
ABO siRNA
20-abx906423 Abbexa
  • 551.00 EUR
  • 732.00 EUR
  • 15 nmol
  • 30 nmol
ABO siRNA
20-abx906424 Abbexa
  • 551.00 EUR
  • 732.00 EUR
  • 15 nmol
  • 30 nmol
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
abx117115-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 467 EUR
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
20-abx001336 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 314.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
abx029931-400ul Abbexa 400 ul 523 EUR
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
abx029931-80l Abbexa 80 µl 286 EUR
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
20-abx315565 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
abx215750-100ug Abbexa 100 ug 439 EUR
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
20-abx339880 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
20-abx339881 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody
20-abx141615 Abbexa
  • 370.00 EUR
  • 606.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 50 ul
Anti-ABO (1B7)
YF-MA20264 Abfrontier 100 ug 363 EUR
Abo Blocking Peptide
33R-3633 Fitzgerald 100 ug 180 EUR
ABO Blocking Peptide
DF6481-BP Affbiotech 1mg 195 EUR
ABO cloning plasmid
CSB-CL001110HU1-10ug Cusabio 10ug 233 EUR
ABO cloning plasmid
CSB-CL001110HU2-10ug Cusabio 10ug 233 EUR
ABO Rabbit pAb
A1586-100ul Abclonal 100 ul 308 EUR
ABO Rabbit pAb
A1586-200ul Abclonal 200 ul 459 EUR
ABO Rabbit pAb
A1586-20ul Abclonal 20 ul 183 EUR
ABO Rabbit pAb
A1586-50ul Abclonal 50 ul 223 EUR
Anti-ABO antibody
STJ22473 St John's Laboratory 100 µl 277 EUR
ABO Conjugated Antibody
C32328 SAB 100ul 397 EUR
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody (HRP)
20-abx315566 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody (FITC)
20-abx315567 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) Antibody (Biotin)
20-abx315568 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
  • 182.00 EUR
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
Human Histo- blood group ABO system transferase, ABO ELISA KIT
ELI-11013h Lifescience Market 96 Tests 824 EUR
Mouse Histo- blood group ABO system transferase, Abo ELISA KIT
ELI-34717m Lifescience Market 96 Tests 865 EUR
Mouse Abo/ Histo-blood group ABO system transferase ELISA Kit
E0013Mo Sunlong 1 Kit 632 EUR
Human ABO/ Histo-blood group ABO system transferase ELISA Kit
E0018Hu Sunlong 1 Kit 605 EUR
Mouse Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) ELISA Kit
abx520875-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 739 EUR
Human Histo-Blood Group ABO System Transferase (ABO) ELISA Kit
abx251773-96tests Abbexa 96 tests 739 EUR
Human ABO(Histo-blood group ABO system transferase) ELISA Kit
EH2410 FN Test 96T 567.6 EUR
ABO protein (His tag)
80R-1945 Fitzgerald 50 ug 424 EUR
Human ABO ELISA Kit
ELA-E8923h Lifescience Market 96 Tests 824 EUR
ABO ELISA KIT|Human
EF006458 Lifescience Market 96 Tests 689 EUR
ABO Antibody, HRP conjugated
1-CSB-PA001110LB01HU Cusabio
  • 317.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
ABO Antibody, FITC conjugated
1-CSB-PA001110LC01HU Cusabio
  • 317.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
ABO Antibody, Biotin conjugated
1-CSB-PA001110LD01HU Cusabio
  • 317.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 50ug

Recently, the manufacturing processes have much evolved ensuring good in vivo tolerance and minimizing side effects, in particular transmission of infectious agents and improved recovery [5,24]. The manufacturers have strived to develop processes which do not treat the proteins as harshly as reducing and alkylating. These gentler processes result in benefits to the patients [24]:

  • Improved or increased efficacy;

  • Shorter and easier to manage processes will increase consistency;

  • More efficient processes will increase supply;

  • Increased purity leads to better tolerability and efficacy;

  • An optimized formulation, such as a liquid increases convenience and may improve tolerability.

 

 

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